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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[rediger | rediger kilde]

This template gives the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last =
| first =
| year =
| title =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| page =
| url =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
    • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: An url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example[rediger | rediger kilde]

{{Citation
| last = Turner
| first = Orsamus
| title = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place = Rochester, New York
| year = 1851
| id = {{Olympiske leker|7120924W}}
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling,  

Full citation parameters[rediger | rediger kilde]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author =
| last =
| first =
| author2 =
| last2 =
| first2 =
| author-link =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| coauthors =
| editor =
| editor-last =
| editor-first =
| editor2 =
| editor2-last =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link =
| editor2-link =
| others =
| publication-date =
| year =
| month =
| origyear =
| title =
| chapter =
| chapter-url =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper =
| magazine =
| work =
| edition =
| series =
| volume =
| issue =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place =
| language =
| page =
| pages =
| nopp =
| at =
| id =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi-inactive =
| url =
| accessdate =
| format =
| archiveurl =
| archivedate =
| quote =
| laysummary =
| laysource =
| laydate =
| separator =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[rediger | rediger kilde]

Syntax[rediger | rediger kilde]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata; see Wikipedia:COinS.

  • Be careful using templates within the citation template, as many will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the meta-data.
    • Known templates that should not be used: {{smallcaps}}.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

Description[rediger | rediger kilde]

Authors[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use first1, last1 through first9, last9 for up to nine authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlink9.
Aliases: last, last1, author, authors; last1, author1 through last9, author9
When using Mal:Sfnote or Mal:Paren styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one parameter else the anchor will not match the inline link.
  • coauthors: Names of of coauthors. Use the same format as the authors.
When using Mal:Sfnote or Mal:Paren styles with templates, do not use this parameter else the anchor will not match the inline link.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "Illustrated by Smith" or "Trans. Smith".

Editors[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-first, editor1-last through editor4-first, editor4-last for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Format:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds.".

Title[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Formatted in italics.
    • trans_title: If the source cited is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. The template will display this in square brackets after the title field and it will link to the url field, if used. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space [ ] |
  • chapter: The chapter title or the title of the shorter work within the source, written in full. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Formatted in quotations.
    • trans_chapter: If the source cited is in a foreign language, an English translation of the chapter can be given here. The template will display this in square brackets after the chapter field and it will link to the chapter-url field, if used. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case; appears in parentheses following the title; examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner; Press release.

Language[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Formatted in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name; do not use icons or templates.

Date[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • date: Full date of source being referenced; in same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. The date is placed after the authors and in parentheses; if there is no author, then the date is placed after the publisher.
  • OR: year: Year of source being referenced.
    • month: Name of the month of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead; do not wikilink.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displayed after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics; example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.

Periodical[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • work: Name of the periodical; formatted in italics; aliases: work, journal, periodical, magazine
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter is italicized and is not enclosed in quotes.
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not show.

Publisher[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; corporate designations such as "Ltd" or "Inc" are not usually included; may be wikilinked if relevant.
    • location: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked.
    • publication-date: Date of publication; in same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink.

Series[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

Edition[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised" etc. Displays " ed." after this field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed."

Volume[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes; displayed in bold after the title and series fields; if bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.

In-source locations[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content; preceded with p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source; preceded with pp. unless |nopp=y.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient; overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

Identifiers[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

URL[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers such as Amazon.com; see WP:PAGELINKS.
    • accessdate: Full date when URL was accessed; use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and the Internet Archive; requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the item was archived; use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink; requires archiveurl.
      • deadurl: To change the order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end, set |deadurl=no.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters have error checking to ensure that all the required parameters are included, else {{citation error}} is invoked. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; HTML is implied and should not be specified; displayed in parentheses after title.

Mal:MediaWiki URL rules

Laysummary[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • laysummary: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary; formatted in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary; enclosed in parentheses.

Display options[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with a strike-through dash (—) author-mask em in length. If |author-mask=1 then the dash will be one em in length and so on. Set author-mask to a text value to display a word instead:– for example, 'with'. You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use in bibliographies for some styles where multiple works by a single author are listed. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references></references> or similar as there is no control as to the order that references will display.
  • author-name-separator: Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: By default, the number of authors displayed is limited to 8; if 9 are provided, the ninth is displayed as "et al." This parameter allows display of fewer authors before the "et al."; example: |display-authors=2; if there are 8 or fewer authors, then "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9.
  • lastauthoramp: When set to any value, changes the separator to use between the last two names in lists of authors to an ampersand (&); defaults to a semicolon and space (; ), else |author-separator= if set.
  • postscript: The closing punctuation for the citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if |quote= is specified.
  • separator: The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a comma (,); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • postscript: Set terminal punctuation. Omit or leave blank to remove the trailing full stop (period). Punctuation specified by this parameter will appear within the cite span, and consequently before any icons added by metadata-using software, e.g. library browser plugins. Hence this parameter should be used instead of manually appending data to the citation. This parameter is ignored if |quote= is specified, when |postscript=. is forced.

Anchor[rediger | rediger kilde]

Examples[rediger | rediger kilde]

Books[rediger | rediger kilde]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1 = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2 = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3 = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place = Home Base, New York
| volume = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd utgave), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web[rediger | rediger kilde]

Web page
{{Citation
| url = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov
| title = NPS Focus
| work = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
}}
«NPS Focus», National Register of Historic Places (National Park Service), http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov, besøkt November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/
academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/
http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, arkivert fra originalen on October 13, 2007, http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html, besøkt October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[rediger | rediger kilde]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 12
| issue = 2
| year = 1976
| pages = 1–8
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), «Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties», BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1 = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2 = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3 = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4 = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume = 152
| issue = 1
| pages = 153–61
| year = 1981
| pmid = 7338906
| doi = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J, m. fl.. (1981), «The dimensions of DNA in solution», J Mol Biol 152 (1): 153–61, DOI:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue = 19
| date = October 1, 1879
| year = 1879
| month = October
| page = 289
| url = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), «Last Testimony of Sister Emma», The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289, http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179 
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last = Sullivan
| first = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year = 2001
| title = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/
general/pdf/1485.pdf
| format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), «Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years» (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology, http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[rediger | rediger kilde]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| year = 1876
| editor-last = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1–56085–072–8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), «Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim», i: Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, 1996, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1–56085–072–8
}}
Vogel, Dan, red. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), «Bernard Lewis», i: Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, ss. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, red. (1999), «Bernard Lewis», Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, ss. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[rediger | rediger kilde]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| pages = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, red., «Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History», BYU Studies 17 (1): 35, 1976, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| contribution = Affidavit
| year = 1872
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| pages = 1
| contribution-url = http://
udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), Affidavit, skrevet i Lincoln County, Nevada, i: Toohy, Dennis J., «Mountain Meadows Massacre», Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah) 5 (252): 1, September 24, 1872, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359 

Press release[rediger | rediger kilde]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/
library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html, besøkt April 10, 2010, «in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3» 

Citing patents[rediger | rediger kilde]

Parameters (all are optional)[rediger | rediger kilde]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[rediger | rediger kilde]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik og Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations[rediger | rediger kilde]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. If an empty |ref= is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[rediger | rediger kilde]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, s. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "KILDEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, s. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[rediger | rediger kilde]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[rediger | rediger kilde]

Siteringsfeil: <ref>-tagg i <references> har motstridig attributt «n».


Siteringsfeil: <ref>-merker finnes for gruppenavnet «n», men ingen <references group="n"/>-merking ble funnet, eller det mangler et avsluttende </ref>-merke.