Madison Grant

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Madison Grant

Madison Grant (født 19. november 1865; død 30. mai 1937) var en amerikansk advokat, historiker og antropolog. Grant er kjent for sine arbeider med eugenikk og raseteori. Grant øvde gjennom sitt virke som innflytelse på amerikansk innvandringspolitikk.

Grant ble født i New York City. Hans far, Gabriel Grant, var en velkjent lege som virket under den amerikanske borgerkrigen. Familien kom opprinnelig fra Skottland. Sin utdannelse fikk Grant ved privatskoler og ved omfattende reiser i Europa. Han studerte senere ved Yale University, hvor han utmerket seg. Han mottok sin juridiske eksamen fra Columbia Law School, og praktiserte kort tid; men det gikk rakst opp for ham at hans interesser lå andre steder. Han giftet seg aldri og fikk ingen barn.

Den nordiske rase[rediger | rediger kilde]

Grant er mest kjent for sin bok The Passing of the Great Race fra 1916, som søkte å gi en rasemessig historie til Europa. Grant anså et samfunns rasesammensetning som hovedprinsippet for dets utvikling. Grant anså den nordiske rase, primært plassert i Skandinavia, som arnestedet for sivilisatorisk utvikling i Europa og verden for øvrig. Grant mente at andre raser hadde et lavere potensial for sivilisatorisk utvikling, noe det historiske vitnesbyrd viste.

"Maximum Expansion of Alpines" — Map from Passing of the Great Race showing the "essentially peasant" Alpine migrations into Europe.
"Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics" — Early Nordic influence spreading over the continent.
"Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic Alpines" — Further Nordic expansion, as well as the Alpines.
"Present Distribution of the European Races" (1916) — Grant's vision of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow.

Ut fra sine teorier anbefalte Grant rasemessig segregasjon, hvor "ufordelaktige raser" ble tildelt ghettoer, og at blandingen mellom rasene ble begrenset.

Boken ble en stor salgssukess, med over 16,000 solgte eksemplarer i USA alene. Boken ble oversatt til tysk. Adolf Hitler skrev til Grant at "denne boken er min Bibel."[1] Boken var mye diskutert og Franz Boas fiende av ham. Grant mislikte Boas forsøkte å få han oppsagt fra Columbia University.[2][3] Boas og Grant var involverte i en bitter maktkamp for kontroll over antropologien som universitetsfag i USA.

Arbeider[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • Grant, Madison. "The vanishing moose, and their extermination in the Adirondacks," Century Magazine 47(1894): 345-356.
  • ________. The caribou. New York, Office of the New York Zoological Society, 1902.
  • ________. "Moose." Report of the Forest, Fish, Game Commission, State of New York (1903): 225-238.
  • ________. The Rocky Mountain goat. New York, Office of the New York Zoological Society, 1905.
  • ________. "Condition of wild life in Alaska," Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, 1909 (Washington, 1910): 521-529.
  • ________. The passing of the great race; or, The racial basis of European history. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.
  • ________. The passing of the great race, or, The racial basis of European history. New edn., rev. and amplified, with a new preface by Henry Fairfield Osborn. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918.
  • ________. Saving the redwoods; an account of the movement during 1919 to preserve the redwoods of California. New York, Zoological Society, 1919.
  • ________. The passing of the great race, or, The racial basis of European history. rev. ed. with a documentary supplement, with prefaces by Henry Fairfield Osborn. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921.
  • ________. Der Untergang der grossen Rasse, die Rassen als Grundlage der Geschichte Europas. German translation of The passing of the Great Race by Rudolf Polland. München, J. F. Lehmann, 1925.
  • ________, ed., with Charles Stewart Davidson. The founders of the republic on immigration, naturalization and aliens, collected for and edited by Madison Grant and Charles Stewart Davidson. New York, C. Scribner’s Sons, 1928.
  • ________, ed., with Charles Stewart Davidson/ The alien in our midst; or, "Selling our birthright for a mess of pottage"; the written views of a number of Americans (present and former) on immigration and its results. New York, The Galton Publishing co., 1930.
  • ________. The conquest of a continent; or, The expansion of races in America. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933.

Referanser[rediger | rediger kilde]

Commons Commons: Madison Grant – bilder, video eller lyd
  1. ^ Spiro, Jonathan P. (2009). Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Univ. of Vermont Press. ISBN 978-1-58465-715-6. 
  2. ^ Petit, Jeanne D. (2010). The Men and Women We Want: Gender, Race, and the Progressive Era Literary Test Debate. University of Rochester. s. 165. ISBN 978-1580463485. Besøkt 26. juni 2011. 
  3. ^ Winfield, Ann Gibson (2007). Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology, and Memory. Peter Lang. s. 74. ISBN 978-0820481463. 
  • Spiro, Jonathan P. (2009). Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Univ. of Vermont Press. ISBN 978-1-58465-715-6. 
  • "Madison Grant, 71, Zoologist, Is Dead," New York Times (May 31, 1937), p. 15.
  • Barkan, Elazar. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
  • Cooke, Kathy J. "Grant, Madison." American National Biography. Online, Feb. 2000.
  • Guterl, Matthew Press. The Color of Race in America, 1900-1940. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Spiro, Jonathan P. "Patrician racist: The evolution of Madison Grant." Ph.D. diss., Dept. of History, University of California, Berkeley (2000).
  • ________. "Nordic vs. anti-Nordic: the Galton Society and the American Anthropological Association," Patterns of Prejudice 36:1 (2002): 35-48.
  • ________. "The Alien in Our Midst."
  • Regal, Brian. Henry Fairfield Osborn: Race and the Search for the Origins of Man (Ashgate, 2002).
  • Regal, Brian. "Maxwell Perkins and Madison Grant: Eugenics Publishing at Scribners," Princeton University Library Chronicle LXV:2 (Winter 2004):317-341.