Ukrainske patrioter er en nasjonalistisk paramilitær organisasjon grunnlagt i 2005 i Ukraina. Organisasjonen bruker politisk vold, rasisme og nynazisme. UP er den paramilitøre grenen til Sosialnasjonalistisk forsamling som er en forening av nynazistiske organisasjoner og grupper. Organisasjonens logo er varghaken, som brukes av visse SS-divisioner under andre verdenskrig. Mange individer i Ukrainske patrioter er medlemmer i Azovbataljonen.
Ukrainske patrioter var svært aktive i opprøret på Euromajdan.
Referanser[rediger | rediger kilde]
- ^ a b Likhachev, Viacheslav (september–oktober 2013). «Right-Wing Extremism on the Rise in Ukraine». Russian Politics and Law. 51 (5). doi:10.2753/RUP1061-1940510503. «The main extrasystemic ultraright group in Ukraine in recent years has been Patriot of Ukraine (led by Andrii Bilets’kyi). The core of the organization was formed in Kharkiv in 2004, when a group of activists belonging to the SNPU’s paramilitary youth wing of the same name refused to accept the leaders’ decision to disband the militarized organization while “rebranding” their party. By 2006, Patriot of Ukraine had become a public movement with branches in many regions of the country. Activists appeared in camouflage uniform with neo-Nazi symbols. Many public actions were organized—targeting migrants, political opponents, and others. Violence (including the use of firearms) was repeatedly used against political opponents and members of ethnic and sexual minorities. In 2011, during the investigation of several criminal cases (one charge concerned the preparation of a terrorist act), almost the entire leadership of the organization in Kyiv and Kharkiv ended up behind bars; this paralyzed the movement and caused it to split… Members of almost all the organizations listed are known to have engaged in ideologically motivated violence.»
- ^ Diversity and Tolerance in Ukraine in the Context of EURO 2012. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
- ^ Shekhovstov, Anton (mars 2011). «The Creeping Resurgence of the Ukrainian Radical Right? The Case of the Freedom Party.». Europe-Asia Studies. 63 (2): 203–228. doi:10.1080/09668136.2011.547696. «During the second half of the 1990s, the SNPU recruited Nazi skinheads and football hooligans. At the same time, the party decided to reorganise its ‘popular guard units’ to form the Tovarystvo spryyannya zbroinym sylam ta viiskovo-mors’komu flotu Ukrayiny ‘Patriot Ukrayiny’ (Society of Assistance to Armed Forces and Navy of Ukraine ‘Patriot of Ukraine’), headed by Andrii Parubii. However, although the ‘Patriot of Ukraine’ was formed in 1996, it was not until 1999 that it became a full-fledged organisation. Its first convention took place in Lviv in December 1999 and was celebrated by a night-time torch procession through the city streets… [In 2004, the SNPU] the convention disbanded the Patriot of Ukraine, as this paramilitary organisation as such and its overtly racist stances in particular posed a threat to the new ‘respectable’ image of the Freedom Party… The Kharkiv local organisation of the Patriot of Ukraine refused to disband and renewed its membership in 2005. The following year, it managed to register as a regional social organisation, but, from then on, it had no organisational ties with the maternal party.»
- ^ Wodak (red.). Right-Wing Populism in Europe. Bloomsbury Academic.
- ^ a b Ralf Melzer (red.). The Extreme Right in Ukraine’s Political Mainstream: What Lies Ahead?. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
- ^ Ishchenko, Volodymyr (2011). «Fighting Fences vs Fighting Monuments: Politics of Memory and Protest Mobilization in Ukraine». Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. 19 (1-2). «...rightist non-partisan groups including overtly racist “autonomous nationalists” (http://reactor.org.ua) and the neo-Nazi “Patriot of Ukraine” (http://www.patriotukr.org.ua/). For the far right sector politics of memory actions comprised 29.2% of all protest actions with their participation, this was larger than the shares of social-economic, political struggle, and civic rights protest issues (Table 7)… After the notorious death of Maksym Chaika in a fight with antifascists in Odessa in April 2009, Yushchenko unambiguously supported the far right interpretation of the accident claiming the victim to be “an activist of a patriotic civic association” consciously murdered by “pro-Russia militants” ignoring Chaika’s connections with rightist football hooligans and his membership in the “SICH” (“Glory and Honor”) organization, a participant in the Social-Nationalist Assembly (http://sna.in.ua/) together with the neo-Nazi group “'Patriots of Ukraine.'"»