Hjelp:IPA/engelsk

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For store deler av Wikipedia er uttalen av ord angitt ved hjelp av det internasjonale fonetiske alfabetet (IPA). Følgende tabeller viser IPA-symbolene som brukes til engelske ord og uttalelser. Vær oppmerksom på at flere av disse symbolene brukes på måter som er spesifikke for Wikipedia, og er forskjellig fra de som brukes av ordbøker.

Tabeller[rediger | rediger kilde]

IPA Eksempler
Konsonanter
/b/ but, web
/d/ do, odd
/ð/ this, breathe, father
/dʒ/ gin, joy, edge, jenny
/f/ fool, enough, leaf
/ɡ/ go, get, beg
/h/ ham, ahead
/j/ yes
/k/ cat, kill, skin, queen, thick
/l/ left, bell
/m/ man, ham
/n/ no, tin
/ŋ/ ringer, sing, sink
/ŋɡ/ finger
/p/ pen, spin, tip
/r/ run, very[1]
/s/ see, city, pass
/ʃ/ she, sure, emotion, leash
/t/ two, sting, bet
/tʃ/ chair, nature, teach
/v/ voice, have
/w/ we
/ʍ/ what[2]
/z/ zoo, rose
/ʒ/ pleasure, vision, beige[3]
/θ/ thing, teeth
IPA Eksempler
Vokaler
/ɪ/ bid, pit[4]
/iː/ bead, peat[4]
/i/ happy, city[4]
/ɛ/ bed, pet
/æ/ bad, pat
/ɑː/ balm, father, pa
/ɒ/ bod, pot, cot
/ɔː/ bawd, paw, caught
/ʊ/ good, foot, put
/uː/ booed, food
/ʌ/ bud, nut
Diftonger
/eɪ/ bay, hey, fate
/aɪ/ buy, high, ride, write
/aʊ/ bough, how, pout
/ɔɪ/ boy, hoy
/oʊ/ beau, hoe, poke[5]
/juː/ beauty, hue, pew, dew[6]
R-fargede vokaler[7]
/ɪr/ mirror
/ɪər/ beer, mere
/ɛr/ berry, merry
/ɛər/ bear, mare, scary
/ær/ barrow, marry
/ɑr/ bar, mar
/ɒr/ moral, forage
/ɔr/ born, for
/ɔər/ boar, four, more
/ʌr/ hurry, burry
/ʊər/ boor, moor
/ɜr/ bird, myrrh, furry
(alternatively /ɝː/ [8])
Reduserte vokaler
/ɨ/ roses, business [9]
/ə/ Rosa’s, above
/ər/ runner, mercer
(alternatively /ɚ/ [8])
/əl/ bottle
/ən/ button
/əm/ rhythm
IPA: Marginale lyder
IPA Eksempler
x Scottish loch
ʔ uh-(ʔ)oh
mm-()mm [to indicate paying attention during a conversation]
IPA: Andre skriftlige symboler som brukes i engelsk uttale
IPA Forklaring
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), for example rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ Secondary stress, for example battleship /ˈbætl̩ˌʃɪp/
. Syllable separator, for example plankton /ˈplæŋk.tən/
 ̩ Syllabic consonant, for example ridden /ˈɹɪdn̩/

Notater[rediger | rediger kilde]

  1. ^ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  2. ^ /ʍ/ is found in some dialects, such as Scottish and Southern American English; elsewhere people use /w/.
  3. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are cited as being pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  4. ^ a b c American convention is to write /i/ when unstressed and preceding a vowel or word boundary, as in wiki /ˈwɪki/ and serious /ˈsɪriəs/; British convention used to be /ˈwɪkɪ/ and /ˈsɪərɪəs/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  5. ^ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  6. ^ In many dialects, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after "tongue sounds" (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/), so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/.
  7. ^ In many dialects, /r/ occurs only before vowels. Note that due to American influence, the schwas have been left out in many Wikipedia articles. That is, /ɪər/ etc. are not always distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are, the long vowels may be transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/.
  8. ^ a b In some articles these are transcribed /ɝː/ and /ɚ/ when not followed by a vowel.
  9. ^ Few British dictionaries distinguish this from /ɪ/, though the OED now uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ̵.