Ny kultur-bevegelsen

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Ny Kultur-bevegelsen (tradisjonell kinesisk: 新文化運動 forenklet kinesisk: 新文化运动, pinyin: Xīn Wén Huà Yùn Dòng) knytter seg til perioden fra 1917 til 1923 i Kina, en periode preget av intellektuell gjæring og studentprotester mot krigsherrenes styre. Den kulminerte med Fjerde mai-bevegelsen av 1919.

Blant bevegelsens mest fremtredende personer kan nevnes Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun og Hu Shi. De hadde alle en bakgrunn fra klassaisk konfuciansk dannelse, men så på nettopp denne typen pregning som et av hovedhindrene for Kinas modernisering.

Historie[rediger | rediger kilde]

Ny Kultur-bevegelsen ble innvarslet av stiftelsen av tidsskriftet Ny Ungdom i 1915 av professor Chen DuxiuPekinguniversitetet.[1] Som følge av Qing-dynastiets sammenbrudd og svakhetene i den nye republikanske regjering kom Ny Kultur-bevegelsen, som var overbevist om at grunnen til landets misére var å finne i problemer ved den nasjonale kulturelle arv. Dette skulle også bli et grunnlag for den mer utbredte og politisk orienterte Fjerde Mai-bevegelsen.[2]

Referanser[rediger | rediger kilde]

  1. ^ Furth, Charlotte (1983). «Intellectual change: from the Reform movement to the May Fourth movement, 1895-1920». I: John K. Fairbank. Republican China 1912-1949, Part 1. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ss. 322-405. ISBN 9780521235419. 
  2. ^ Schwartz, Benjamin (1983). «Themes in Intellectual History: May Fourth and After». I: John K. Fairbank. Republican China 1912-1949, Part 1. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ss. 406-451. ISBN 9780521235419. 

Litteratur[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • Guy Alitto, The Last Confucian: Liang Shu-Ming and the Chinese Dilemma of Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). Biography of a conservative New Culture figure.
  • Kai-wing Chow, Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity (Lanham: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefied, 2008). Essays on new aspects of the movement,including an Introduction which reviews recent re-thinking.
  • Chow Tse-tsung, The May Fourth Movement. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1960. Standard comprehensive survey and analysis.
  • Dirlik, Arif. Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. Revisionist study showing the influence of anarchist programs.
  • Doleželová-Velingerová, Milena, Oldřich Král, and Graham Martin Sanders, eds. The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001. Revisionist study.
  • Jerome B. Grieder, Hu Shih and the Chinese Renaissance; Liberalism in the Chinese Revolution, 1917-1937 (Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1970). Careful study of central figure.
  • Hayford, Charles W., To the People: James Yen and Village China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. Early chapters describe the role of popular education in the New Culture.
  • Lanza, Fabio, Behind the Gate: Inventing Students in Beijing. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-231-15238-9. Study of student culture and institutions during the New Culture period.
  • Leo Ou-fan Lee, Voices from the Iron House : A Study of Lu Xun (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987). Biography and literary analysis.
  • Yusheng Lin, The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Antitraditionalism in the May Fourth Era (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979). Early critique of the New Culture Movement as "iconoclastic."
  • Manela, Erez. The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Describes the global influences on Chinese youth.
  • Maurice J. Meisner, Li Ta-Chao and the Origins of Chinese Marxism (Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1967). Intellectual biography of key leader and co-founder of Chinese Communist Party.
  • Rana Mitter, A Bitter Revolution: China's Struggle with the Modern World (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). Traces the fate of New Culture ideals through the rest of the century.
  • Schwarcz, Vera. The Chinese Enlightenment: Intellectuals and the Legacy of the May Fourth Movement of 1919. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. Argues that May Fourth ideals were betrayed.
  • Schwartz, Benjamin. "Themes in Intellectual History: May Fourth and After." In Cambridge History of China, Vol. 12, pt. 1: Republican China, 1912–1949, 406–504. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Overview of intellectual and cultural history.
  • Spence, Jonathan D. The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution, 1895-1980. Includes many New Culture leaders and their experience of revolution.
  • Zarrow, Peter. Anarchism and Chinese Political Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990).