Polytonalitet

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Mozart brukte polytonalitet på en komisk måte i Ein Musikalischer Spaß. Seinere i musikkhistorien ble polytonalitet et viktig og seriøst virkemiddel Play

Polytonalitet er bruken av flere tonearter samtidig innen musikk. Når det er snakk om akkurat to tonearter samtidig, benytter en ofte betegnelsen bitonalitet. Et velkjent eksempel på dette finnes i balletten Petrusjka av Igor Stravinskij. I den andre delen blir det spilt en fanfare der førsteklarinetten spiller en melodi på tonene i en C-durakkord, mens andreklarinetten spiller den samme melodien på tonene i en F#-durakkord. Her låter det dissonerende, men polytonalitet kan i andre tilfelle også konsonere.

Kilder[rediger | rediger kilde]

  • Babiracki, Carol M. (1991). "Tribal Music in the Study of Great and Little Traditions of Indian Music". In Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, edited by Bruno Nettl and Philip V. Bohlman, 69–90. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-57409-1.
  • Babbitt, Milton (1949). "The String Quartets of Bartók". Musical Quarterly 35, nr. 3 (July): 377–85.
  • Baker, James (1983). "Schenkerian Analysis and Post-Tonal Music", In Aspects of Schenkerian Theory, edited by David Beach, 153–86. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02800-8 (cloth); ISBN 0-300-02803-2 (pbk).
  • Casella, Alfred (1924). "Tone Problems of Today". Musical Quarterly 10:159–71.
  • Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life: a History. New York: Norton.
  • Polyharmony. Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary. Virginia Tech. Besøkt 4. august 2007.
  • Hindemith, Paul (1941–42). The Craft of Musical Composition, vols. 1 and 2, translated by Arthur Mendel and Otto Ortmann. New York: Associated Music Publishers; London: Schott & Co. Original German edition as Unterweisung im Tonsatz. 3 vols. Mainz, B. Schott's Söhne, 1937–70.
  • Jordania, Joseph (2006). Who Asked the First Question?, Logos.
  • Kostka, Stefan, and Dorothy Payne (1995). Tonal Harmony, with an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music, third edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-035874-5.
  • Leeuw, Ton de (2005). Music of the Twentieth Century: A Study of Its Elements and Structure. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 90-5356-765-8.
  • Marquis, G. Welton (1964). Twentieth Century Music Idioms. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Račiūnaitė-Vyčinienė, Daiva (2002). Sutartinės: Lithuanian Polyphonic Songs, translated from the Lithuanian by Vijolė Arbas. Vilnius: VAGA Publishers. ISBN 9785415016303.
  • Seymour, Claire (2007). The Operas of Benjamin Britten: Expression and Evasion. ISBN 9781843833147.
  • Tymoczko, Dmitri. 2002. "Stravinsky and the Octatonic: A Reconsideration". Music Theory Spectrum 24, no. 1:68–102.
  • Van den Toorn, Pieter C., and Dmitri Tymoczko (2003) "Colloquy: Stravinsky and the Octatonic: The Sounds of Stravinsky". Music Theory Spectrum 25, no. 1 (Spring): 167–202.
  • Vincent, John (1951). The Diatonic Modes in Modern Music. University of California Publications in Music 4. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • White, Eric Walter (1970). Benjamin Britten: His Life and Operas. ISBN 9780520016798.
  • Whittall, Arnold (2001). "Bitonality". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Wilson, Paul (1992). The Music of Béla Bartók. Composers of the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05111-5.

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