Peter Abelard

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Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard
Født 1079
Le Pallet nær Nantes
Død 21. april 1142 (62 eller 63 år)
Kirken Saint-Marcel nær Chalon-sur-Saône
Samboer Héloïse d’Argenteuil
Foreldre Lord Berengar

Statue of Abelard at Louvre Palace in Paris by Jules Cavelier
"Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert", by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819)
Abélard and Heloïse in a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose (14th century)
Abélard receives the monastery of the Paraclete Héloïse (1129)

Peter Abelard (Latin: Petrus Abaelardus eller Abailardus, fransk: Pierre Abélard), født 1079, død 21 April 1142, var fransk skolastisk filosof, teolog og fremragende logiker. Han var også komponist. Historien om hans affære med Heloise har blitt en legende.

Eivind Tjønneland innleder sin artikkel om Abelard i Store norske leksikon med:

Pierre Abélard, fransk filosof og teolog, den betydeligste tenker i første halvdel av 1100-tallet, en av middelalderens fargerikeste intellektuelle. Abélards dristige fremstilling av filosofiske og teologiske spørsmål, hans dyktighet som lærer og hans personlige sjarm gjorde ham til en sentral personlighet i tidens franske høyskole- og klosterliv. Gjennom sin virksomhet ved klosteret St. Victor i Paris ble han en av banebryterne for det senere universitetet i Paris, ett av Europas første. Han kom i strid med enkelte av de ledende i sin samtid, særlig Bernhard av Clairvaux, som til slutt fikk ham dømt som kjetter, en dom som påskyndet Abélards død. Hans innflytelse merkes på flere områder. For det første ved at han forberedte og innledet den aristoteliske epoke i middelalderens teologisk-filosofiske tenkning. Videre bidro han i høy grad til å skape den karakteristiske skolastiske didaktiske metode: En oppstilt tese (problemformulering, spørsmål) følges av motstridende utsagn om problemet hentet fra forskjellige autoriteter, og tesen drøftes og besvares i lys av disse.
Abélard var også komponist og salmedikter. Det som imidlertid bevarte minnet om ham gjennom århundrene var kjærlighetsforholdet til Héloïse, som var hans elev og som han fikk sønnen Astralabius med; forholdet resulterte i en litterært betydelig og berømt brevsamling (no. utg. Brevvekslingen mellom Abélard og Héloïse, 2002). Hennes familie lot Abélard kastrere. Abélard og Héloïse er ifølge tradisjonen gravlagt i samme kiste på kirkegården Père-Lachaise i Paris.[1]

Peter King innleder sin artikkel om "Peter Abelard" i The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy med:

Peter Abelard (1079–21 April 1142) [‘Abailard’ or ‘Abaelard’ or ‘Habalaarz’ and so on] was the pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. The teacher of his generation, he was also famous as a poet and a musician. Prior to the recovery of Aristotle, he brought the native Latin tradition in philosophy to its highest pitch. His genius was evident in all he did. He is, arguably, the greatest logician of the Middle Ages and is equally famous as the first great nominalist philosopher. He championed the use of reason in matters of faith (he was the first to use ‘theology’ in its modern sense), and his systematic treatment of religious doctrines are as remarkable for their philosophical penetration and subtlety as they are for their audacity. Abelard seemed larger than life to his contemporaries: his quick wit, sharp tongue, perfect memory, and boundless arrogance made him unbeatable in debate—he was said by supporter and detractor alike never to have lost an argument—and the force of his personality impressed itself vividly on all with whom he came into contact. His luckless affair with Héloïse made him a tragic figure of romance, and his conflict with Bernard of Clairvaux over reason and religion made him the hero of the Enlightenment. For all his colourful life, though, his philosophical achievements are the cornerstone of his fame.[2]

Kevin Guilfoy innleder sin artikkel om Peter Abelard i Internet Encyclopedia of Philosphy med:

Peter Abelard (1079-1142) was the preeminent philosopher of the twelfth century and perhaps the greatest logician of the middle ages. During his life he was equally famous as a poet and a composer, and might also have ranked as the preeminent theologian of his day had his ideas earned more converts and less condemnation. In all areas Abelard was brilliant, innovative, and controversial. He was a genius. He knew it, and made no apologies. His vast knowledge, wit, charm, and even arrogance drew a generation of Europe’s finest minds to Paris to learn from him.[3]
Philosophically, Abelard is best known as the father of nominalism. For contemporary philosophers, nominalism is most closely associated with the problem of universals but is actually a much broader metaphysical system. Abelard formulated what is now recognized as a central nominalist tenet: only particulars exist. However, his solution to the problem of universals is a semantic account of the meaning and proper use of universal words. It is from Abelard’s claim that only words (nomen) are universal that nominalism gets its name. Abelard would have considered himself first a logician and then later in his life a theologian and ethicist. He may well have been the best logician produced in the Middle Ages. Several innovations and theories that are conventionally thought to have originated centuries later can be found in his works. Among these are a theory of direct reference for nouns, an account of purely formal validity, and a theory of propositional content once thought to have originated with Gottlob Frege. In ethics, Abelard develops a theory of moral responsibility based on the agent’s intentions. Moral goodness is defined as intending to show love of God and neighbor and being correct in that intention.[4]

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  1. ^ Eivind Tjønneland om Pierre Abélard. (20.11.2011) I Store norske leksikon. Hentet fra: http://snl.no/Pierre_Ab%C3%A9lard
  2. ^ King, Peter, "Peter Abelard", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2010/entries/abelard/.
  3. ^ Kevin Guilfoy: Peter Abelard (1079-1142) Last updated: October 14, 2007 | Originally published: October 14, 2007Internet Encyclopedia of Philosphyhttp://www.iep.utm.edu/abelard/
  4. ^ Kevin Guilfoy: Peter Abelard (1079-1142)Last updated: October 14, 2007 | Originally published: October 14, 2007Internet Encyclopedia of Philosphyhttp://www.iep.utm.edu/abelard/

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